Revelation 16 provides a picture of the just judgments of God being poured out on the ungodly. The righteous rejoice because of this great God who brings justice to the earth. The wicked refuse to repent and are given exactly what they deserve as they reflect the beast they worship when they choose to curse God. These seven bowls are figurative rather than literal and describe the judgements God pours out over the inter-Advent age and in the final judgement. Much of the terminology finds its foundation in the Old Testament and it is critical to understand this background to further comprehend John’s Apocalypse. This is especially true regarding the redemptive-historical account in Exodus and Egypt which provides a basis for the bowls and unifies the entire chapter. God’s wrath is real and comes on all those who do not give him the glory he deserves. For every individual who does worship the Holy One who is and who was, must persevere and hold firm in the faith, staying awake…
Scroll down to the end for a link to the rest of the essay on the topic
The full question:
Provide an exegetical paper on Revelation 16:1-21.
These books are ordered from the most useful to the least used resource in my research. There are a few journal articles and websites at times as well. (scroll down to the end for my essay on the topic)
The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text – Beale, G. K.
Revelation: An Introduction and Commentary – Paul, Ian
The Book of Revelation: An Introduction and Commentary – Morris, Leon
Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament – Beale & Carson
Revelation: The Compassion and Protection of Christ – Gardner, Paul
Revelation: The Spirit Speaks to the Churches – Hamilton Jr., James M.
Revelation – Duvall, J. Scott
Revelation 6-16 – Aune, David E.
Apocalypse Now and Then: Reading Revelation Today – Barnett, Paul
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament – Metzger, Bruce M.
Revelation – Keener, Craig S.
New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Book of Revelation – Kistemaker, Simon J.
The Book of Revelation – Mounce, Robert H.
The Knowledge of the Holy – Tozer, A. W.