Who Should Do Ministry?

*This is not a definitive answer on the topic but I hope it is useful food for thought.

Who Should Do Ministry?

The full question:

Is every member of the church a ‘minister’? If so, in what sense and what are the implications for those traditionally regarded as ministers?


Ministry is one of the key jobs of the church. But who is to do ministry: all believers, or merely those in ‘professional’ ministry? When considering texts such as Ephesians 4 it becomes clear that ministry is indeed for all believers. This does not mean that there is not a place for people in full time ministry, as there are many texts that show that the church is to have pastors and leaders. What does it mean for these leaders then? It means that they are to encourage, equip and give opportunities to serve to their congregations. This is one of the key duties of a pastor.


‘There can be no renewal without the glad acceptance of universal ministry.’[1] This mindset – that all believers are to be involved in ministry – is a reasonably recent one, gaining particular momentum within the last few decades.[2] But is this a biblical concept? What does the bible say concerning who should be involved in ministry? This essay will seek to answer whether all believers are indeed ‘ministers,’ and if so, in what sense, and what the implications are for those who have traditionally been regarded as ministers.


2.1 Those Involved

Traditionally, believers have been separated into two general categories: the clergy and the laity. The clergy being those involved in ministry[3] and the laity everyone else.[4] Both of these words find their origin in the New Testament: the word clergy derives from the word κλήρων, which ‘refers to…God’s people as being His special portion,’[5] [6] while the word laity derives from the word λᾱός, meaning ‘people.’ The word clergy is clearly referring to all of God’s people, as shown by the way that God both promises to pour out His Holy Spirit on His people in the Old Testament,[7] [8] and then actually does pour Him out in the New Testament.[9] [10] [11] God seems to be equipping all of his people for ministry, not just a special class of people. However, this mindset changed in the church around the third century, when the word clergy began to be used to refer to a limited group.[12] From this point the word has historically been used to refer to a distinct group, however it is not the way that the bible uses it: all believers are to be clergy.[13] Thus, this distinction between clergy and laity seems to be based more on tradition than on Scripture.

2.2 What is Ministry?

It is also important to consider what is actually meant by the term ‘ministry.’ In the Old Testament šārat refers to ministry performed by priests, while ābad refers to the religious service of the whole people of God.[14] The New Testament uses one major word, διακονία, and this ‘is not the exclusive privilege of a priestly caste.’[15] Διακονία means literally ‘service.’[16] [17] Thus, when referring to ministry the New Testament speaks of serving and service.[18] This service is first to God, and then as a result to his people.[19] Thus, when referring to ministry, this essay will be using it to mean ‘serving God and serving God’s people.’

2.3 Who Should Minister?

2.3.1 Key Bible Passages

To figure out who should do ministry there are a number of key bible texts to consider. The first of these is Ephesians 4:7-11, where Paul says that some have been given to be apostles, prophets, evangelists, shepherds and teachers. It is clear that not all are designated to these roles, but rather only a select few.[20] This does not mean, however, that only some are to be involved in ministry, as verse 12 suggests that the mission of those who are chosen for these roles is to ‘equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ.’[21] In other words, those with these particular gifts are to help those without them to minister. Ephesians 4 ‘is incontrovertible evidence that the New Testament envisages ministry not as the prerogative of a clerical elite but as the privileged calling of all the people of God.’[22]

Both 1 Corinthians 12:1-11 and 1 Peter 4:7-11 suggest a similar thing: everyone has been given gifts for ministry.[23] Romans 12:3-8 has the same emphasis, although Paul does not specifically say that everyone has gifts. The context of the passage suggests that this is the case, as he begins by addressing everyone, then moves to gifts a few verses later. Hence, the natural conclusion that can be drawn is that he is indeed speaking to every believer, even if he does not specifically say that each one has a gift for ministry.[24] [25] [26]

It is also worth considering the three major forms of ministry in the Old Testament: prophets, priest and kings. It begins with Adam, who took on all three roles in the garden of Eden.[27] When sin entered the world it distorted humanity’s prophetic ability to believe and function as God’s mouthpiece. Priestly access was also restricted, and instead of ruling over creation humanity was subjected to the harshness of a sin-ravaged world.[28] When Christ came he perfectly fulfilled these roles. As such, believers are to imitate Christ in his prophet-priest-king role in a subordinate way.[29] This function will be completed in the new creation, when believers will ‘forever function as subordinate prophets, priest and kings.’[30] This is important because it shows that from beginning to end the human race was[31] intended to serve in this three-fold ministry.[32] Thus, ‘the mass of the church…are represented as an agency by which [Jesus] executes his prophetic office.’[33]

It is the Holy Spirit who enables and equips God’s people for ministry.[34] While Ephesians 4:7-11 seems to indicate that the gifts are given by Christ, this is not inconsistent with the Holy Spirit being the One that gives them, as Christ is ‘the one who baptises his people with the Holy Spirit.’[35] [36] Thus, these gifts come from the Holy Spirit with the express purpose to be used for the sake of the church:[37] [38] [39] they are to be used for ministry. This is significant because it is not that some are given gifts for ministry, but rather that all are given gifts, and all are instructed to use them for ministry.

However, some tend to place too much emphasis on a ‘call’ to ministry,[40] citing passages such as Ephesians 4 to make the case that there is a specific call to some to be in a particular form of ministry. While this may be the case[41] it does not mean that everyone else is not to do ministry. As discussed above, the role of these particular people is to ‘equip the saints for the work of ministry.’[42] Thus, it is clear that even if some are called to ministry, this does not excuse everyone else from their obligation to do ministry.

Thus, the bible is clear that all believers have gifts for ministry, and hence ‘there must be openness in all our meetings to permit the participation of…every member…. Each believer does have a special ability from God to contribute to the common good.’[43] It is hard to argue against this when the bible is so clear that every member of the church has received gifts for the express purpose of serving the body of Christ. Thus, because every member is called to do ministry:[44] [45] they are called to be a ‘minister’ in the sense of a servant.

2.3.2 No Full Time Ministers?

This does not mean that there is no place for full time ministers. While it is clear that not all ministry is full time,[46] nevertheless, the New Testament makes clear that there is still a place for full-time ministers. [47] Acts 17 and 20 both make clear that Paul was working in some form of full-time capacity in his ministry.[48] Further, Jesus spent three years in full-time ministry. [49] Therefore, while it is true that ministry must be carried out by the entire church, it does not mean that there is no place for those in full-time paid ministry.

3. In What Sense?

3.1 Open Church and Active Church

There are two broad views as to what this looks like, which have been labelled Open Church and Active Church.[50] The Open Church view believes that ‘the church must be largely redefined and dissolved into the ministry of the laity.’[51] It stresses the ministry of the laity, to the detriment of the ministry of the clergy. This has led to things like the abolition of Sunday services and an emphasis instead placed on small-group meetings,[52] to churches having unstructured meetings, to times of informal conversation between members at Sunday services, and to the ordination of all of the members to ministry.[53] It also places an emphasis on the removal – or at least playing down – of the role of clergy.

The problem with this view is that it sets aside the biblical teaching on leadership and headship: the bible is clear that the church is to have elders and pastors.[54] [55] But when the ministry of the laity is given too much emphasis, it results in an egalitarian view that displaces any kind of leadership. However, this does not seem to be what Paul means when he refers to the church as a body: there is still leadership;[56] it is just that the leadership does not do everything, but rather provides leadership to help the body serve and minister.

The Active Church stream seeks to fit the ministry of the laity within ‘more traditional structures.’[57] It encourages the serving of all of the laity, within the church,[58] not by introspection and trying to discover one’s own spiritual gifts, but rather by using the gifts and abilities that God has given for the good of others.[59] This emphasis on the good of others comes from passages such as Ephesians 4:7-16 and 1 Corinthians 12:7, where the focus is on the building up of the body,[60] [61] rather than on edifying oneself.

3.2 The Same Nature: Servant-Hearted Ministry

It is vital that every-member ministry is servant hearted, self-sacrificial and other-centred.[62] [63] Indeed, ministry is at heart other-centred, and thus this is how every believer is to use their gifts for ministry. It is important that ministry imitates Christ in this way, as ministry is only effective when it is done in a Christ-like manner.[64] Thus, every-member ministry must be servant-hearted in nature.

3.3 Different Outworking: Giftings

But while the nature of the ministry is the same for every person, it does not mean that their ministries are the same. Rather, each member of the body is gifted in different ways.[65] [66] Scripture contains multiple lists of different gifts that church members have.[67] [68] These lists are not a ‘master list of spiritual gifts,’[69] but rather speaks in general categories, with the specific out-workings being left to the individuals to figure out. Thus, while every believer must minister, the specifics of what that looks like will change from person to person. Nevertheless, the purpose is the same: to love God and to build up His people.[70]

4. The Benefits and Dangers of Every-Member Ministry

There are many blessings that come from every-member ministry, including the reminder that it is not all up to the pastor, the reminder that each member of the church has their own spiritual gifts, the way that it can counter self-centredness at church, and the way that serving together can strengthen relationships among believers.[71] It is also helpful for encouraging a seriousness in the body of believers, because they sense that they too are involved in ministry, which in turn helps them to mature as believers. It is also a great blessing in the way that it increases the resource pool that a church has for ministry: if it is only the pastor doing ministry, then there is a much smaller pool of energy and gifts to draw from. But if it is the entire congregation, then that resource pool increases dramatically.[72] And finally, it makes clear that all believers are equal, because all are involved in ministry.[73] [74] While there is also an associated danger that those who have more spectacular gifts will be seen as more important, this need not be the case.[75] Thus, there are many blessings associated with every-member ministry.

But there are also dangers to be wary of: the danger of believers being so swept up in church-ministry that they neglect their relational ministries, that those lacking in maturity may be put in a position beyond their abilities, and the danger of thinking too highly of oneself.[76] [77] Further, above all of these dangers is the way that the position of pastor may sometimes be diminished – or even completely removed.

However, while at times throughout history every-member ministry has been misused,[78] this need not be the case. Just because it has been incorrectly applied, it does not mean that the concept itself is incorrect. As has been demonstrated above, ‘it takes all the people of God to do all the work of God.’[79] Thus, every-member ministry does indeed seem to be the biblical model. And yet, the bible also speaks of those in a more full-time ministry.[80] Therefore, the next section of this essay will consider the implications of every-member ministry on those traditionally regarded as ministers.


If all believers are to be involved in ministry, then what of those traditionally regarded as ministers?[81] Is it true that ‘there is no…distinction in the body between ‘clergy’ and ‘laity’’? [82] Ephesians 4:11-12 makes clear that there are some who are intended to play specific roles within the church, for the equipping of the saints for ministry, amongst whom are included pastor-teachers.[83] [84] Therefore, there is unity and diversity within the body of Christ.[85] [86]

5.1 They Differ in Giftedness, Training, Desire and Available Time

Pastor-teachers differ from other church members in both their giftedness and training. Those ordained to full-time paid ministry should be recognised as having the necessary gifts to be pastors, fulfilling the biblical qualifications for leaders.[87] [88] [89] It is vital that pastor-teachers have this giftedness and character. But it is also vital that they are trained for ministry. While it is not necessarily a biblical principle to put leaders through intense bible training, it is nevertheless a helpful thing to do. This is because leaders and teachers have the responsibility of leading, teaching, and pastoring God’s flock, and will be held accountable for their actions.[90] [91] [92] [93] Therefore, it is important that they are trained as thoroughly as possible. While some have argued that ‘Every believer is a priest… [and thus that ministry] has nothing to do with training,’[94] this is to misunderstand the role of pastor-teachers. While it is true that ministry is not only for those trained to do ministry, it is also true that training is of great benefit to the effectiveness[95] of ministry.[96] Thus, those who have been trained are of great benefit to the church, as pastor-teachers are to be (humanly speaking) much more capable in the ministry of preaching and teaching than regular members.

Pastor-teachers also differ in that God has placed a deep conviction on their heart, so that they may do nothing else but ministry.[97] [98] This deep conviction means that that they have a greater desire than others for ministry. And finally, pastor-teachers differ in the way that they have been freed up to pursue full time ministry. Because of their giftedness and training they have been set aside to pursue ministry in a full-time capacity, without the burden of needing to do secular work for sustenance. This allows them to devote much more time than they may have otherwise been able to.

5.2 Therefore, They Must Lead in Ministry

These differences mean that pastor-teachers are to lead in ministry: it is not that they do everything at church, but rather that they have a specific position of leadership that derives from his teaching office. Despite the fact that every member of the body is called to minister, they are not responsible for the church in the way that elders or pastor-teachers are,[99] since not every believer is meant to be a pastor or teacher.[100] To recognise this is not to fall back into clericalism,[101] but simply to follow the biblical picture of church governance.[102] Pastor-teachers are to both long for God and the growth of His kingdom, and to lead his people in their ministry.[103]

5.2.1 Oversight

The first crucial aspect of this leadership in ministry is to provide oversight of the church. In a sense, pastor-teachers are to be under-shepherds under the True Head,[104] or Chief Shepherd.[105] Because of the giftedness and training of pastors, as well as the fact that they have much more time to devote to ministry, pastor-teachers are particularly equipped to lead God’s people. This is vital because the devil is prowling, waiting to devour God’s sheep.[106] But pastor-teachers are to protect them. They are also able to provide leadership and direction for the body of Christ, and to nurture believers to maturity in Christ.[107] [108] [109]

5.2.2 Encouraging People to Serve

Pastor-teachers are also to lead by encouraging every member to serve. As Stott notes, ‘the New Testament concept of the pastor is not of a person who jealously guards all ministry in his own hands…but of one who helps and encourages all God’s people to discover, develop and exercise their gifts.’[110] But too often God’s people drift: they get caught up in the distractions of daily life, and as such do not serve in the way that they ought. Thus, it is vital that pastor-teachers correct this, and encourage ministry through sermons, bible studies, and personal conversations. This is one of their key roles: to identify and encourage the laity to use their gifts for ministry.

5.2.3 Equipping People to Serve

But it is not enough to merely encourage believers to serve: pastor-teachers must also ‘equip the saints for the work of ministry.’[111] Being gifted and trained allows them to do this, as they should be well versed in how to do ministry well, and thus are able to pass this knowledge onto their flock. Indeed, ‘the discovering and nurturing of the gifts of [church] members remains the primary work of the mission group.’[112] While this may be too far,[113] it is nevertheless helpful in the way that it stresses the importance of pastors helping the church as a whole to serve. This means that pastor-teachers must include training in their church schedule: sermons are good, and can encourage believers to serve, but they rarely convey the practicalities of how to do particular ministries. Therefore, pastor-teachers must ensure that they are providing training to their flock, equipping them for service: helping them to develop their spiritual gifts, that they may be involved in ministry.[114] By so doing, ministry will be multiplied.[115]

5.2.4 Give Them the Opportunity to Serve

Once pastor-teachers have encouraged and equipped their flock, they must also give them the opportunity to serve. This means that they need to realise that church should not be a one-man-show. In other words, they must ensure that they facilitate ways in which every church member may serve.[116] This will obviously change from person to person, as not every member is skilled and gifted in the same way.[117] [118] [119] [120] Hence the pastor-teacher must find ways that are suitable for each person, as ‘every church needs an intentional, well-planned system for…supporting the giftedness of its members.’[121] For some, this may involve being given the opportunity to service lead or preach, while for others it may be being added onto the welcoming roster, being given the opportunity to lead the church in prayer, or any number of other ministry opportunities. As Wagner notes, ‘the best pastor is not one who relieves members of their ministries, but one who makes sure each member has a ministry and is working hard at it.’[122]

An advantage of every-member ministry is that it frees the pastor-teacher up to teach and equip the saints. Too often they are burdened with managing programs and administration work. But if they encourage, equips and gives the body of believers the opportunity to serve, then many of these program-focused tasks can be done by others, which in turn frees the pastor-teacher up for more Word-based, disciple-based ministries.[123] As John MacArthur notes, ‘the surest road to a church’s spiritual stagnation…is for the pastor to become so engulfed in activities and programs that he has too little time for prayer and the Word.’[124]

Thus, while it is true that ‘clericalism – like sin – is carrying a good thing too far,’[125] it need not necessarily be a bad thing. Indeed, there are many good things associated with pastor-teachers: namely, the ability to use their giftedness, training, and time to spur God’s people on to greater ministry.

6. Conclusion

It is vital that the church remembers the fact that every believer is to be a minister. Ultimately, this is how the church will continue to grow and flourish. And therefore, it is hard not to mirror the hope of Stott when he says ‘if the sixteenth century recovered the ‘priesthood of all believers’…perhaps the [twenty-first] century will recover ‘the ministry of all believers.’’[126]

  1. Elton Trueblood and David Haney, ‘Foreword’, in Renew My Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1972), 12.

  2. Mark Dever, ‘The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry’, in The Compromised Church: The Present Evangelical Crisis (ed. John H. Armstrong; Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 1998), 85.

  3. Priests, pastors and ministers

  4. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 85.

  5. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 86.

  6. Ephesians 1:11; 1 Peter 5:3

  7. Joel 2:28-29. Indeed, this promise played a big part in shaping the early church and its views on what Christ had done. C. H Dodd, According to the Scriptures. (London: Nisbet, 1952), 63–64.

  8. David Prior, The Message of Joel, Micah, and Habakkuk: Listening to the Voice of God (Nottingham, England: Inter Varsity Press, 2010), 69–73.

  9. Acts 2:1-47

  10. I. Howard Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndal New Testament Commentaries; Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980), 67–83.

  11. David Peterson, The Acts of the Apostles (The Pillar New Testament Commentary; Grand Rapids, Mich. : Nottingham, England: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. ; Apollos, 2009), 140.

  12. Alexandre Faivre, The Emergence of the Laity (trans. by David Smith; New York: Paulist, 1990), 23.

  13. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 87.

  14. Derek R. W. Wood (ed.), New Bible Dictionary (3rd ed.; Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1996), 769.

  15. Wood, New Bible Dictionary, 769.

  16. Bruce M Metzger, Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek. (Great Britain: T & T Clarke, 1990), 20.

  17. Jeremy Duff, The Elements of New Testament Greek (3rd ed ed.; Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 304.

  18. James Montgomery Boice, Ephesians: An Expositional Commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books, 2006), 141.

  19. Charles A Rogers, ‘What Is Christian Ministry’, Duke Divinity School Review 33/2 (1968): 86.

  20. John R. W. Stott, God’s New Society: The Message of Ephesians (The Bible Speaks Today; Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 1979), 159–166.

  21. Ephesians 4:12

  22. Stott, God’s New Society, 167.

  23. 1 Peter 4:7-11 says literally, ‘to serve’ (διακονοῦντες)

  24. Everett Harrison, ‘Romans’, in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Volume 10) (ed. Frank E. Gaebelein; 19. print. ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich: Regency Reference Libr, 1984), 129–131.

  25. Jean Calvin, The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Romans and to the Thessalonians (Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. Eerdmans, 1991), 266–270.

  26. R. Kent Hughes, Romans: Righteousness from Heaven (Preaching the Word; Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 1991), 217.

  27. Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994), 629.

  28. Grudem, Systematic Theology, 629.

  29. Grudem, Systematic Theology, 630.

  30. Grudem, Systematic Theology, 630.

  31. And is.

  32. In particular the priestly role. See 1 Peter 2:9; Hebrews 10:19-25, 12:22-24.

  33. William G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology (3rd ed.; Phillipsburg, N.J: P & R Pub, 2003), 684.

  34. 1 Corinthians 12:8-11

  35. F. F. Bruce, The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, 1984), 340.

  36. Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology (Abridged ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Book House, 1988), 183.

  37. Romans 12:6-8

  38. Timothy Keller, Romans 8-16 for You. (2015: The Good Book Company, 2015), 111.

  39. F. F. Bruce, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans: An Introduction and Commentary (The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries; Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977), 227.

  40. For example, Ogden places a large emphasis on the call t ministry. While he still advocates for all believers to be involved in ministry, it is nevertheless a fine line when one places too much emphasis on those ‘called’ to ministry, and is in danger of leading to a professional class of ministers that do all of the ministry. Greg Ogden, Unfinished Business: Returning the Ministry to the People of God (Revised ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2003). Chapters 8 and 10.

  41. Indeed, there does appear to be an aspect of certain people being given particular leadership and ministry skills that would make them suitable for full time ministry.

  42. Ephesians 4:12

  43. Lawrence Richards, A New Face for the Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1970), 108.

  44. David L. Smith, All God’s People: A Theology of the Church (Wheaton, Ill: BridgePoint Book, 1996), 354.

  45. David Broughton Knox, Sent by Jesus: Some Aspects of Christian Ministry Today (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1992), 1.

  46. For example, the gift of prophesying requires no preparation, and is not a full-time job as it merely comes on as the Holy Spirit wills. D. B Knox, D. Broughton Knox Selected Works (Volume 2: Church and Ministry) (Kingsford, N.S.W.: Matthias Media, 2000), 211–212.

  47. Knox, D. Broughton Knox Selected Works (Volume 2: Church and Ministry), 212–213.

  48. At least for extended periods of time, even if he was ‘tent-making’ at other times.

  49. Knox, D. Broughton Knox Selected Works (Volume 2: Church and Ministry), 212–213.

  50. Following the broad streams that Dever uses. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 96.

  51. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 96.

  52. Which by their nature make it impossible for the clergy alone to lead. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 97.

  53. Robert Girard, Brethren, Hang Loose (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1972), 135.

  54. Acts 20:17-35; Hebrews 13:17; James 3:1l; Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Peter 5:1-4

  55. Indeed, there are certainly examples in Scripture of those dedicated to full-time ministry.

  56. 1 Thessalonians 5:12-13

  57. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 96.

  58. Rather than by breaking down traditional church structures and services.

  59. Gene Getz, Building Up One Another (Colorado Springs, CO: Chariot Victor, 1981), 23.

  60. Jean Calvin, The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1988), 172–177.

  61. Richard Coekin, Ephesians for You (New Malden: The Good Book Company, 2015), 119.

  62. Mark 10:35-45

  63. J. C Ryle, Expository Thoughts on Mark (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 2012), 171–174.

  64. Romans 15:18; Galatians 2:20

  65. 1 Corinthians 12:1-31

  66. Stephen T. Um, 1 Corinthians: The Word of the Cross (Preaching the Word; Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2015), 211–228.

  67. 1 Corinthians 12:8-11, along with Romans 12:6-8, Ephesians 4:7-11 and 1 Peter 4:7-11

  68. David Prior, The Message of 1 Corinthians: Life in the Local Church (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2010), 198.

  69. David R Helm, 1 & 2 Peter and Jude: Sharing Christ’s Sufferings (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2015), 143.

  70. John M. Frame, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing, 2013), 114–115.

  71. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 103–104.

  72. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 104–106.

  73. Everett Ferguson, The Church of Christ: A Biblical Ecclesiology for Today (Grand Rapids, Mich: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1996), 293.

  74. Ray Anderson, Theological Foundations for Ministry (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979), 711.

  75. And indeed goes against the teaching of Scripture. 1 Corinthians 12:1-31

  76. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 108–109.

  77. John Piper, Brothers, We Are Not Professionals: A Plea to Pastors for Radical Ministry (Updated & Expanded edition ed.; Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2013), 55–60.

  78. For example, the way that it has led to an over-emphasis on small-group gatherings, rather than the more traditional Sunday meetings.Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 96–100.

  79. Melvin Steinbron, The Lay Driven Church (Ventura, CA: Regal, 1997), 87.

  80. See the discussion in Section 2.3.2

  81. They will be referred to as ‘Pastors’ from here onwards, to save time.

  82. Lawrence Richards and Gib Martin, A Theology of Personal Ministry: Spiritual Giftedness in the Local Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1981), 122.

  83. Stott, God’s New Society, 159–166.

  84. R. Kent Hughes, Ephesians: The Mystery of the Body of Christ / R. Kent Hughes. (Wheaton, Ilinois: Crossway Books, 2013), 130–132.

  85. Leon Morris, 1 Corinthians (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1985), 168.

  86. David E. Garland, 1 Corinthians (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic, 2003), 589.

  87. Titus 5:1-9; 1 Timothy 3:1-7; 1 Peter 5:1-4

  88. Andrew T. Lincoln, Ephesians (Nachdr. ed.; Word Biblical Commentary [General ed.: David A. Hubbard; Glenn W. Barker. Old Testament ed.: John D. W. Watts. New Testament ed.: Ralph P. Martin]; Vol. 42; Waco, Tex: Word Books, Publ, 2005), 267–269.

  89. That is not to say that ministers laud it over others because of their gifting. In fact, quite the opposite: Christian ministry is by nature self-sacrificial and other-centred. See Mark 10:35-45. Robert S. Paul, Ministry (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965), 112–113.

  90. James 3:1

  91. Sam Allberry, James for You. (Great Britain: The Good Book Company, 2015), 90.

  92. R. Kent Hughes, James: Faith That Works (ESV edition ed.; Preaching the Word; Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 2015), 118–121.

  93. James B. Adamson, The Epistle of James (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids: Erdmans, 1976), 139–141.

  94. Lawrence Richards and Clyde Hoeldtke, A Theology of Church Leadership (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1980), 360.

  95. Humanly speaking. It is true, of course, that God is ultimately responsible for the success of ministry. Nevertheless, training is still of great importance.

  96. As it enables them to spend a significant amount of time learning and reflecting on how to do ministry well, it enables them to read widely and learn from those well versed in ministry, and it enables them to study the bible in great depth.

  97. Jeremiah 20:9

  98. C. H. Spurgeon, Lectures to My Students (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2010), 27–28.

  99. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 111.

  100. Ephesians 4:7-11

  101. Dever, “The Priesthood of All Believers: Reconsidering Every-Member Ministry,” 111.

  102. Acts 20:17-35; Hebrews 13:17; James 3:1l; Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Peter 5:1-4

  103. As opposed to clericalism, which takes ministry away from the people, and has the danger of turning God’s workers into professionals. For a helpful discussion on the fact that pastors are not professionals, see: Piper, Brothers, We Are Not Professionals, 1–4.

  104. 1 Corinthians 12:1-31

  105. 1 Peter 5:1-11

  106. 1 Peter 5:8

  107. Colossians 3:16

  108. Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine: Essential Teachings of the Christian Faith. (Nottingham, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 2010), 373.

  109. Millard J Erickson, Christian Theology (2nd ed.; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1998), 1063–1064.

  110. Stott, God’s New Society, 167.

  111. Ephesians 4:12

  112. Gordon Cosby, Handbook for Mission Groups (Waco, Texas: Word, 1975), 60.

  113. In that it is not necessarily the ‘primary work’ of pastors.

  114. Walter Henrichsen, Disciples Are Made – Not Born (Wheaton, Illinois: Victor, 1974), 132.

  115. Bill Hull, The Disciple-Making Pastor: Leading Others on the Journey of Faith (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 2007), 113.

  116. Sanders argues that delegation is one of the key principles of leadership. While it is true that leadership and pastoral ministry are not exactly the same, there is nevertheless overlap between the two. J. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership: Principles of Excellence for Every Believer (Updated ed. ed.; Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2007), 137.

  117. 1 Corinthians 12:1-31; Romans 12:6-8

  118. Harold W. Mare, ‘1 Corinthians’, in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Volume 10) (ed. Frank E Gaebelein; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984), 264–267.

  119. Jean Calvin, The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989), 261–273.

  120. Douglas J. Moo, The Epistle to the Romans (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1996), 764.

  121. Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995), 367.

  122. Peter Wagner, Your Spiritual Gifts Can Help Your Church Grow (Revised ed.; Ventura, CA: Regal, 1994), 133.

  123. Colin Marshall and Tony Payne, The Trellis and the Vine: The Ministry Mind-Shift That Changes Everything (Kingsford, N.S.W.: Mathias Media, 2009), 7–15.

  124. John MacArthur, Ephesians (The MacArthur New Testament Commentary; Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 154.

  125. Loren Mead, The Once and Future Church (Washington: Alban Institute, 1991), 33.

  126. Stott, God’s New Society, 168.





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