The full question:

Is there any justification for the discipline of theology? If so, what did Moses, Jesus, and the Apostles teach about its principal aims and outcomes in the life and ministry of the church?


The question of whether there is any justification for the discipline of theology is both an important and contentious one. There is a sharp disagreement amongst theologians with respect to the answer to this question. Some contend that experience, reason and good works play a more important role in the life of the church than theology. But there are still those who believe in the necessity and centrality of doctrine in the life of the church. It is the burden of this paper to demonstrate the ways in which the discipline of theology is of vital importance in every generation.



“Theology, once acclaimed ‘the Queen of the Sciences,’ today hardly rises to the rank of scullery maid; it is often held in contempt, regarded with suspicion, or just ignored.”[1]

It is in such a climate that the question of whether there is any justification for theology arises. This question is really asking the fundamental question of what religion is and how one can encounter the divine. The mystic and the later romantic point to intuition and emphasize ‘inner experience.’[2] The empiricist insists on ‘sense observation’ being the arbitrator of truth[3] and the humanist asserts that ‘human reason’ is the ‘final court of appeal.’[4]

Such approaches to religion are appealing at face value. In their own unique ways, they all offer the perception of freedom and confidence for individuals to discover the divine and how that divine would have them live. The trouble is, each of these approaches to religion rejects the proposition that religious assertions rest on an external and objective ‘authority.’[5] Yet the Christian faith has always recognised that Scripture is the external, objective and final authority in determining all religious assertions. It has always been concerned with the ‘good news’, which contains propositional truths about God, Christ, and man.

This paper will assert that there is great justification for theology and it will do this in three ways. First, it will demonstrate why theology is the only reliable means of encountering the divine. Second, it will demonstrate how Moses, Christ, and the Apostles taught and upheld theology. Third, it will explore how theology impacts the life of the church today.[6]

A Definition of Theology

In order to demonstrate that there is justification for theology today, we must begin first by defining the term ‘theology.’ In terms of taxonomy, theology simply derives from the two words: ‘Theos’ which is the Greek word for ‘god’[7] and ‘ology’ which refers to the ‘scientific study’ of any ‘particular subject.’[8] Frame defines theology as ‘God’s revelation of Himself.’[9] Kelly understands theology as the ‘living’ God making ‘himself known.’[10] These are helpful definitions but to be more specific, theology can be understood as seeking to understand God’s ‘creation’, ‘man and his condition’ and God’s ‘redemptive working in relation to mankind.’[11] Doctrine ultimately ascribes and provides meaning to the redemptive history of what God has done. It is what the ‘church of Jesus Christ believes, teaches and confesses on the basis of the Word of God’[12] For the purposes of this paper then, theology is the historic teachings of the Holy Bible.

Theology as the Only Reliable Means of Encountering the Divine

Many voices have tried to downplay or diminish the place of theology over the course of history. Some might assume this is a fruit of the enlightenment, however, they would be mistaken. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a scholastic theologian of the 15th and 16th centuries, is one example of a voice that challenged the centrality of propositional theology in the Christian faith. In his correspondence with Martin Luther, Erasmus spoke of how ‘little satisfaction’ he had in ‘assertions.’ Such was his dislike of these ‘assertions’ that he said he would ‘readily take up the Sceptics’ position wherever the inviolable authority of Holy Scripture and the Church’s decisions permit.’[13] As the aforementioned quote by Reymond suggests, the attitude of Erasmus is no doubt shared by many today. Yet such an attitude reveals, at best, the spiritual immaturity of such voices and, at worst, their lack of commitment to following Christ’s commandments (Matt 18:20).

Over the course of history, numerous intellectual movements have arisen and tried to redefine how one determines the assertions of religion. We turn now to consider three of them: mysticism, empiricism, and rationalism.

First, we consider mysticism. Mysticism in its various forms proposes that ‘religious reality’ can be determined through ‘inner experience’ or ‘intuition.’ By definition, it rejects ‘intelligible divine revelation’ in favour of a personal ‘awareness’ or ‘personal illumination.’[14] This approach to religious assertion transcends categories of ‘space and time, truth and error, and good and evil,’[15] thus rendering it impossible to validate in any objective sense. The mystic sees reason as an inadequate means of learning about/encountering the divine and this includes encountering God through Holy Scripture. The difficulty with this approach is found in the mystic claiming to have knowledge of the divine, yet not providing the means for this knowledge to be verified in any objective sense. This approach to religious truth was championed by the19th Century romanticist Friedrich Schleiermacher, who insisted that the ‘Absolute’ is to be ‘felt’ and not ‘conceived.’ This eventually led to a religion based ‘entirely on feelings’ and began the movement of liberal theology.[16] As Henry rightly points out, this ‘mystical intuitionism’ both obscures ‘the transcendence’ of the ‘Creator-God’ and man’s ‘moral waywardness.’[17][18] Theology asserts that intuition – at least in the mystical sense, cannot be trusted as a source of objective truth about God. Theology asserts that God has chosen to reveal Himself progressively through His dynamic Word. It also argues that in past times God did reveal Himself in ‘many ways’ but in these last days, He has chosen to reveal Himself through His Son Jesus Christ and that this Christ is in turn revealed in the Scriptures.[19] Further, even though recorded and accessible to the masses, the truth contained within cannot be comprehended without God’s enabling (John 6:65).

Second, we consider empiricism. Empiricism asserts that any supernatural claim about the divine can only be accepted through ‘sense observation.’ In other words, a tangible observation that is observed by people in any location and time with the same results. This means that ‘all truth’ must, in the end, derive from ‘experience.’[20] This is different from mysticism only in its insistence that everyone must be able to have the same experience when it is sought. This discipline has evolved over time. Aristotle championed an early form which was later adopted by the medieval scholastic theologian, Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas argued that ‘finite realities require an effective cause of qualitatively superior to all effects.’ In other words, there must be a divine being who actions these causes. This notion gave birth to what is known as natural theology, coined and championed by Thomas Aquinas. This philosophy claims to give ‘logically demonstrative proof of God’s existence’[21] Centuries later, however, prominent atheists such as Richard Dawkins claimed that these proofs have now been exposed as ‘vacuous.’[22] And this is because they are based purely on human reasoning.

The American theologian, Carl F. H. Henry says that the ‘modern spirit has opted for empiricism as its way of knowing the externally real world, and the inevitable consequence of this decision is secularity’[23] If secularity is the final outcome of empiricism, it can hardly be considered a valid means to encounter the divine. Systematic theology, however, teaches us that one cannot prove the existence of God via ‘sense observation.’ In the end, God must choose to reveal Himself to the individual through divine revelation in Scripture facilitated by the illumination of the Spirit (1 Cor 2:13-15)

Third, we consider rationalism. Rationalism asserts that ‘human reasoning’ is the ‘only reliable and valid source of knowledge.’ There is a presumption in this discipline that the human mind is capable of ‘solving all intellectual problems.’ Thus, such logic would assume that one could reason their way to the divine. Within Christendom, two great thinkers of the faith had opposing ideas for the place of rational thought.

Augustine rightly saw reason as always being subservient to God’s divine, self-revelation in Holy Scripture. He recognised limitations on man’s capacity to reason and especially in the realm of theology/divine truth.[24] Aquinas, however, was more in line with the ancient rationalists (e.g. Plato). He placed ‘greater confidence’ in ‘independent human reasoning.’ This led him to express ‘optimism’ in the ability of man to reason his way to God.[25] This optimism, however, is misplaced because according to the scriptures, a person can only encounter God if God draws them (John 6:44) and opens their eyes to who He is (Luke 24:31).

Thus, we conclude this section by recognising that there is great justification for theology today principally because, when compared with the alternative sources of knowledge of the divine (intuition, empiricism, and rationalism), it is clear that only theology, derived from Holy Scripture can be seen as a trustworthy means of encountering the living God.

Moses, Christ and the Apostles Taught and Upheld Theology

What Moses Taught

The Prophet Moses was the person through which God gave His people His Law (Exodus 20:1-17), laid out in the Pentateuch of the Old Testament and expanded upon and ratified in later books of the Old Testament. Moses emphasised the Word of God as crucial to both knowing God and living a life that pleases Him. In writing Deuteronomy, Moses provided what is considered the ‘most systematic presentation of theology in the entire Old Testament.’[26] It is compared by some to the Gospel of John, functioning as a ‘theological manifesto’ in which Israel is called to ‘respond to God’s grace with loyalty and love.’[27]

Moses covers various theological doctrines including a focus on God’s ‘absolute uniqueness’, ‘eternality’, transcendence’, ‘holiness’, ‘justice’, ‘righteousness’, ‘faithfulness’, ‘presence’, ‘compassion’ and ‘covenant love.’[28] These doctrines are necessary for Israel to understand who their God is, what He has done for them and how they are to live as His people as covenant people in response to His unmerited kindness. Block notes that the doctrine of divine election ‘plays a prominent role’ in Deuteronomy.[29] This election is both of God’s covenant people (12:5) and God’s king (17:15).[30] Moses makes it clear to the hearers of Deuteronomy that Israel was not chosen for their ‘significance’ (they were least 7:6-8), nor for their moral record (their rebellion is noted in 9:1-24) but only out of ‘sheer grace’ which was demonstrated in love for their ancestors (4:32-38) and descendants (7:6-8).[31] In addition to the doctrine of election, Moses explores ‘covenant relationship’ and does so with a thoroughness not seen anywhere else in the Old Testament.[32] Moses also provides a rich theology of land and a theology government.’[33]

In addition to the doctrines listed, Moses also provides a doctrine of animals. In Deuteronomy 4:17-18, Moses provides a basic taxonomy of the animal kingdom. This is revisited in 14:4-20 where the four ‘broad categories’ are referenced including ‘land animals’, ‘sea creatures’ ‘birds’ and ‘insects.’[34] Moses expands upon this doctrine throughout the book exploring animals as ‘wild and independent of humans’ (Deuteronomy 12:15, 22; 14:5-6; 15:22 dealing with human consumption of wild animals and Deuteronomy 22:6-7 dealing with consumption of wild birds)[35] as well as animals as ‘domestic and dependent on humans’ (Deuteronomy 22:1-4 dealing with how to treat domestic sheep, oxen and donkeys).[36]

But Moses did not simply provide a collection of doctrines to Israel, he also insisted that it was important to embrace, know and remember them. In Deuteronomy 6:20, it appears that he saw the necessity for future generations to commit to ‘transmitting their faith’ to the ‘next generation.’[37] In this verse, Moses calls his people to ‘covenant faithfulness’ in response to the ‘grace’ which was ‘lavished’ upon them.[38] This is likely the basis for the ‘Shema,’ which is Hebrew for ‘hear.’[39] This was the means by which God’s covenant people would know who their God is and what He has done for them. We observe the Shema in Deuteronomy 6:4-5 where Israel is taught to ‘teach’ these words, to ‘talk of them’ and ‘write them’ on their ‘doorposts’ (Deuteronomy 6:7-9).

Therefore, we can see that Moses had a comprehensive theological framework. This demonstrates not only that Moses valued systematic theology, but that he believed it to be crucial for the Israelites to believe, know and remember as well. And all of this demonstrates that for Moses, God was to be known through propositional truth found in the Scriptures.

What Christ Taught

Jesus of Nazareth is depicted by all four gospel authors as having based His theology on an exposition of the Scriptures. In His exposition, He demonstrated the many ways in which those Scriptures both revealed and spoke about Him. Two key texts demonstrate this reality: Luke 4:16-21 and John 5:46.

Jesus ministry was marked by expounding the Scriptures of the Old Testament. His practice was to read a portion of Scripture and draw the connection between Himself and that text. In Luke 4:16-21, Jesus opens a portion of Isaiah, reads it and proceeds to make the statement that the quoted prophecy was fulfilled on that day.

In John 5, Jesus makes the bold assertion that true believers of Moses would believe in Christ also because His writings point to Jesus. Once again this demonstrates the method Jesus employed when teaching theology. Reymond rightly recognizes that this pattern of making exposition the ‘basis’ for theology must be ‘our’ pattern. Additionally, Christ tied every passage be taught back to Himself and therefore the ‘end’ of any theological endeavor must rightly come back to Christ.[40]

Before His ascension, Christ gave the church the Great Commission which contains particular ‘intellectual demands.’ These demands are trifold. First, there is an ‘evangelistic’ demand to ‘contextualize’ the gospel to every generation. Second, there is the ‘didactic’ demand to ‘correlate’ the ‘manifold data’ of Scripture in the minds of others and applying it to ‘all phases’ of ‘thinking and conduct.’ Third, there is the ‘apologetic’ demand to ‘justify’ the existence of the faith in every generation.[41]

What the Apostles Taught

The practices of the Apostles of Jesus Christ provide further evidence of the centrality of theology in the life of the Christian. We turn now to consider the Apostle Paul and how he modeled this reality in his life and ministry. It worth noting that A.M Hunter’s conviction that Paul was ‘the first, and probably the greatest, of the interpreters of the fact of Christ. Better than any other he divined what Christ was, and is.’[42] After conversion, Paul went on a campaign to ‘prove’ to the Jewish community that Jesus truly is the Son of God and the Christ (Acts 9:20-22). Paul entered synagogues to ‘reason’ with them, ‘explaining’ and ‘proving’ the need for Christ to both suffer and rise from the dead (Acts 17:2-3). In the letter to the Ephesians, we observe Paul teaching the saints what blessings they possess in Christ Jesus. Paul describes those in Christ are ‘holy’ and ‘blameless’, ‘chosen’, ‘adopted’ as sons and ‘forgiven.’ Here we see the doctrines of predestination, adoption, and justification to name but a few.

While systematic theology pervades much of Paul’s writings, it is in his letter to the Romans where we see his theology laid out in the most comprehensive manner. Paul lays out the central doctrines of the Christian faith. Beginning in 1:16-17, Paul announces the central theme of the letter, namely, the gospel that is the ‘power of God for salvation.’ This provides righteousness as a product of faith. In 1:18-3:20 we observe the doctrine of the fall and the doctrine of original sin. In 3:21-5:21, we observe the doctrine of justification – the means for obtaining righteousness. Chapter 5:12-21 details the doctrine of imputation. In 6:1-8:39, the doctrine of sanctification then outlined as the logical outworking of that imputed righteousness.

Most importantly, however, we observe in the writings of the apostles, early theological ‘creedal formations’[43] which are known as the ‘paradosis’ (traditions).[44] In 1 Corinthians 15:1-2, we see Paul reminding the first hearers of this letter of the ‘gospel’ that he ‘preached’ to them. He charged them to ‘hold fast’ to this gospel and then proceeded to outline the contents of it. In verses three to five, Paul provides what is considered the ‘oldest document’ and ‘doctrinal tradition’ of the Christian faith.[45] We observe too in 2 Timothy 2:8 a similar, albeit a briefer form of the Corinthian creed that Paul both ‘preached’ and called the Timothy to ‘remember.’

Thus, we recognize that for Moses, Christ and the Apostles, theology was central to their respective ministries. They each valued and taught particular propositions about the living God that they expected their hearers to believe, remember and teach.

The Impact of Theology on the Life of the Church Today

In order to see why this is the case, we turn to consider how theology is instrumental in six aspects of life. John Stott suggests that fundamental to the Christian faith is thought. He recognises six spheres of ‘Christian living’ that must involve thinking – namely: worship, faith, holiness, guidance, evangelism, and ministry.[46] We will now consider how theology is essential in each of these spheres.

Theology Informs Worship

‘All Christian worship, public and private, should be an intelligent response to God’s self-revelation in his words and works recorded in Scripture.’[47]

The Scriptures are full of examples in which God’s covenant people worship their God through intelligible songs or prayers. In Psalm 104, we can observe how the Psalmist employs poetic imagery to reflect on historical actions that God made. For example, when God ‘set the earth on its foundations.’ Conversely, Psalm 105 sees the Psalmist reflecting on how God ‘remembers’ His covenant with Abraham and how that has manifested in many ‘works.’ Such examples illustrate that God’s people cannot adequately worship God without recalling who God is and what God has done.

Theology Informs Faith

There are many understandings of what faith is. Anti-supernaturalists such as H. L. Mencken see faith as ‘illogical belief in the occurrence of the improbable.’ People like Mencken who see faith as essentially anti-intellectual are right to dismiss it if Christianity is simply gullible believism. However, they are gravely mistaken in presupposing that Christianity promotes unthinking acceptance of a deity who is revealed in a series of ancient books.

Leaders of the proponents of the ‘positive thinking’ movement such as Norman Vincent Peale equate positive thinking with faith.[48] This also is a false presupposition regarding the biblical definition of faith. This understanding seeks to view faith in Scripture with mere ‘optimism.’[49] One could argue that such faith is a form of blind faith that is not anchored upon the propositional truths within scripture.

But historically, it has rightly been observed that ‘Christianity has been rather too inclined to offer reasons for faith’[50] and that is because, at its core, Christianity is a reasoned faith. As John Stott helpfully put its: ‘Faith, if you like, can be defined like this: It is a man insisting upon thinking when everything seems determined to bludgeon and knock him down in an intellectual sense.’[51] In other words, faith depends upon particular information that is outside of the one placing faith.

Theology Informs Holiness

‘Sound doctrine is a central means by which Christians grow in holiness.’[52] In other words, holy thinking and behaviour must stem from truth. As Stott rightly reasons, ‘we need to have a clear picture of the kind of person God intends us to be.’ If we presuppose that God’s primary revelation of Himself is through the Word, then it stands to reason that it is in the Word that we learn what holiness looks like and how to become holy.

Theology Informs Guidance

The question of how to discern God’s will is a significant one. Many today claim that ‘the Lord told me to do this’ or ‘called me to do that.’ What they imply is that they have direct communication with God. Such insistence upon a personal encounter with God undermines propositional truth by claiming that there is another means to encounter the divine. This being the case, we must establish what theology offers the person seeking Gods will. John Stott helpfully identifies two aspects to God’s will: the ‘general’ and the ‘specific.’ The general will is the will God has for every saint and can be summed up as wanting them to be ‘conformed to the image of his Son.’ The revealed will is the specific will for an individual such as someone should marry. Stott rightly sees the specific will as something that is discerned through a combination of ‘general principles’ in scripture and the use of the ‘mind’ and ‘common sense.’[53]

Theology Informs Evangelism

Theology not only informs guidance but also evangelism. There two reasons for this. The first is found in the example of the Apostles. The apostle Paul in 2 Corinthians 5:11 stated that his purpose in ministry was to ‘persuade men.’ Persuasion is an ‘intellectual exercise’ and therefore necessarily involves discussing the merits of propositions. When in Thessalonica, the Apostle Paul ‘reasoned from the Scriptures, explaining and proving that it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead.’ In other words, Paul appealed to particular propositions within the scriptures in his evangelistic efforts.

The second reason is found in how conversion is described in the New Testament. Conversion is described as someone embracing ‘the truth.’ In Romans 6:17, the Apostle Paul thanks God for the ‘obedience’ of the recipients, to the ‘standard of teaching which they were committed to.’ Stott rightly points out that evangelism in the time of the Apostles principally involved ‘teaching a body of doctrine about Christ.’[54]

Theology Informs Ministry

Finally, theology informs ministry. Those who serve in word-based ministries and especially pastors are labouring in ministries of the Word. This means their ministries primarily involve teaching. Teaching necessarily involves communicating propositions in simple ways. In ministry, this means communicating the theological propositions contained within the Scriptures. This is evidenced in Titus 1:9 which says that an elder must be able to ‘give instruction in sound doctrine.’ We also see similar sentiments in 1 Timothy 3:2 and 4:13, 2 Timothy 2:15 and 2:24. Thus, we see that, far from being irrelevant, theology is crucial to every area of the Christian life and therefore there is great justification for its place in the life of God’s people.


This paper has considered whether there is any justification for theology and has concluded that there is great justification for it. It has demonstrated this by comparing and contrasting theology to mystical intuition, empiricism, and rationalism, ultimately concluding that theology is the only sure means to encountering God. It then explored what Moses, Christ, and the Apostles taught regarding theology. Finally, it considered the ways in which theology impacts six aspects to the Christian life, namely, worship, faith, holiness, guidance, evangelism, and ministry. There can be no doubt that without theology, there is no Christianity.


  1. Robert L. Reymond, A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith (Nashville: T. Nelson, 1998), xxvii.

  2. Carl F. H Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority 1999, (accessed 17/04/19), 70.

  3. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 78.

  4. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 87.

  5. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 70.

  6. This paper will quote the English Standard Version when bible references are given/explored.

  7. Norman L. Geisler, Systematic Theology (Minneapolis, Minn: Bethany House, 2002), 15.

  8. Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin, eds., Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (Nachdr. ed.; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 944.

  9. John M. Frame, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Christian Belief (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing, 2013), 5.

  10. Douglas F Kelly, Systematic Theology: Grounded in Holy Scripture and Understood in the Light of the Church (Fearn, Ross-shire: Mentor, 2008), 13.

  11. Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology (9. print ed.; Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books, 1992), 21.

  12. Jaroslav Jan Pelikan and Jaroslav Jan Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition: 100 – 600 ([Nachdr.], Paperback ed ed.; The Christian Tradition a history of the development of doctrine / Jaroslav Pelikan; 1; Chicago, Ill.: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2007), 1.

  13. Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will 2018, (accessed 16/04/19), 67.

  14. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 70–71.

  15. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 71.

  16. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 72.

  17. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 73.

  18. Yet, not all intuition is wrong. There is a ‘rational intuition’ which is said to stem from the ‘divine imago in man’ which suggests that certain ‘propositions’ are known without a ‘process of inference.’

  19. Hebrew 1:1-2, New International Version 2011.

  20. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 78.

  21. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 78.

  22. Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (London: Black Swan, 2007), 100.

  23. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 79.

  24. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 85–87.

  25. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority, 87.

  26. Daniel Isaac Block, The Gospel According to Moses: Theological and Ethical Reflections on the Book of Deuteronomy (Eugene, Or: Cascade Books, 2012), 176.

  27. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 1.

  28. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 14.

  29. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 15.

  30. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 15.

  31. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 15.

  32. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 16.

  33. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 16–17.

  34. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 178–179.

  35. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 182–183.

  36. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 184–185.

  37. Daniel Isaac Block, How I Love Your Torah, O Lord! Studies in the Book of Deuteronomy (Eugene, Or: Cascade Books, 2011), 3.

  38. Block, The Gospel According to Moses, 14.

  39. “Shema,” in Oxford Dictionary, (accessed 03/05/19).

  40. Reymond, A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith, xxviii.

  41. Reymond, A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith, xxviii.

  42. A.M Hunter, Interpreting Paul’s Gospel (London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, London and Beccles, 1954), 13.

  43. Hawthorne and Martin, Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, 944.

  44. Anthony C. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians: A Commentary on the Greek Text (The New International Greek Testament Commentary; Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000), 1187.

  45. A.M Hunter, Paul and His Predessors (London: Nicholson and Watson Limited, London, 1940), 137.

  46. John R. W. Stott, Your Mind Matters: The Place of the Mind in the Christian Life (2nd ed ed.; IVP Classics; Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 44.

  47. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 27.

  48. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 28.

  49. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 28.

  50. David Martin, Religion and Power: No Logos without Mythos (Burlington: Ashgate, 2014), 46.

  51. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 31.

  52. Bobby Jamieson, Sound Doctrine: How a Church Grows in the Love and Holiness of God (9marks; Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2013), 52.

  53. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 35–36.

  54. Stott, Your Mind Matters, 37–38.

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