Bonhoeffer and the Cost of Discipleship

*This is not a definitive answer on the topic but I hope it is useful food for thought.

Bonhoeffer and The Cost of Discpleship

The full question:

Evaluate the first two chapter of ‘The Cost of Discipleship’ by Dietrich Bonhoeffer taking into consideration its author, outline and content, life setting and relevance for today.

Abstract

The first two chapters of The Cost of Discipleship contains an excellent epiphany of the costliness of grace. Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s life displays a Christian who understood the cost of following Christ. The influences on Bonhoeffer’s life from the church, the world, his friends and his studies all impacted the content of this book. Its significant impact at the time of writing and continued relevance for today is testament to its importance in the life of every Christian.

Introduction

What does it really mean to follow Christ? Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s (1906-1945) ‘most famous work’[1]The Cost of Discipleship – sought to answer this vital question. Who better to listen to than a man who died, in life and death, for Christ. Bonhoeffer understood ‘costly grace’, as will be seen. This humble, convicted and bold[2] disciple of Christ wrote of what he lived. This paper will consider the first two chapters of this book by considering its author, outline and content, life setting and relevance for today.

Authorship

Bonhoeffer was a tall, intense man with a warm and friendly smile.[3] Born in Breslau, with his twin sister, on February 4th, 1906, he was the sixth of eight children.[4] His father was a university professor from whom Dietrich ‘inherited goodness, fairness, self-control and ability’[5]. His mother had aristocratic blood and gave him a steadfastness, a sympathy and a desire to help the oppressed.[6] Bonhoeffer himself emphasised ‘in later years what positive effects these characteristics of his parents had on his upbringing and lifestyle’[7]. His mother home-schooled until she had eight children but she still ‘reserved the religion class for herself’[8]. With theology being in his ‘blood’[9], at fourteen years of age he had already decided to study theology.[10] At seventeen he entered Tübingen University and a year later Berlin University.[11] When he was twenty-two he became a curate to Barcelona for a year where he was popular and his supervisor said, ‘he proved in every way to be very efficient and helped me greatly in my various activities’[12]. Then, at twenty-four, ‘he became a lecturer in Systematic Theology in Berlin University’ but before he started he went to Union Theological Seminary in New York.[13] It was during this time, between 1931 to 1932, that this theologian became a Christian.[14] From the earliest moment Bonhoeffer was clear about his dislike of the National Socialism movement. In October 1933, he left for London to be a pastor,[15] yet returned in 1935 to run ‘an illegal seminary for the Confessing Church, first in Zingst, then in Fenkenwalde in Pomerania’[16]. It was during this time that he lectured and began writing Discipleship[17] which he completed in 1937. The danger of Hitler’s regime was increasing for Bonhoeffer and in 1939 some American friends got him out of Germany but he returned due to love of his country and in 1940 the College was finally closed down by the Gestapo.[18] Arrested on April 5th, 1943 and put into concentration camps and prison, he was executed at Flossenburg on April 9th, 1945, ‘just a few days before it was liberated by the Allies’[19]. Through this brief outline of the life of Bonhoeffer, the content within the first two chapters of The Cost of Discipleship is made all the more clearer.

Outline and Content

With the author’s life in mind, here is a summary of the outline and content of the first two chapters of The Cost of Discipleship. After a brief introduction on the ‘easy’ yoke of Jesus that every disciple must accept, Bonhoeffer divides the book into four sections: (1) ‘Grace and Discipleship’; (2) ‘The Sermon on the Mount’; (3) ‘The Messengers’; (4) ‘The Church of Jesus Christ and the Life of Discipleship’. There are five chapters under ‘Grace and Discipleship’ and this essay will focus on the first two entitled, ‘Costly Grace’ and ‘The Call to Discipleship’. With this in mind, we will turn to a more specific outline and content.

Chapter 1 Costly Grace

Definition of Cheap Grace

Cheap grace is a deadly enemy which we need to fight and exchange for costly grace. This cheap grace is defined as, ‘grace without a cost!…the preaching of forgiveness without requiring repentance…grace without discipleship, grace without the cross, grace without Jesus Christ’[20]. It is a tragedy, a horrendous misunderstanding of the gospel.

Definition of Costly Grace

On the other hand, costly grace is ‘costly because it calls us to follow, and it is grace because it calls us to follow Jesus Christ’[21]. Yet ‘above all, it is costly because it cost God the life of his Son’[22]. This is a grace worth dying for, and Bonhoeffer then looks at the history of Christianity and the ebb and flow of grasping costly grace.

Peter

Beginning with Peter, Dietrich explains how ‘grace and discipleship are inseparable’ in Peter’s life.[23] Yet the church lost its way.

Monasticism

Monasticism is seen in a positive light, as a ‘living protest against the secularization of Christianity and the cheapening of grace’[24]. Yet this too had its failings in ‘the extent to which it departed from genuine Christianity by setting up itself as the individual achievement of a select few’[25].

Martin Luther

By God’s providence Martin Luther restored ‘the gospel of pure, costly grace’[26]. Bonhoeffer then spends some time on the reformation but particularly Luther and his virtues. Even defending one of his statements, Pecca fortiter, sed forties fide et gaude in Christo (‘Sin boldly, but believe and rejoice in Christ more boldly still’).[27]

Cheap Grace Today

Yet despite Luther and the reformation ‘this cheap grace has turned back upon us like a boomerang’[28]. Bonhoeffer astutely discerns the truth that ‘the word of cheap grace has been the ruin of more Christians than any commandment of works’[29]. So, for those who are distraught with the danger of cheap grace, Bonhoeffer seeks to find them ‘a message’ to bring to life the word of grace that ‘has been emptied of all its meaning’[30].

Chapter 2 The Call to Disicpleship

Mark 2:14 – Call and Response

The second chapter begins by considering Mark 2:14 to demonstrate how ‘Christ calls, the disciple follows; that is grace and commandment in one’[31].

Discipleship

Then defining discipleship as ‘adherence to Christ’[32] he considers the next text – Luke 9:57-62. This passage is used to demonstrate the high demand that Jesus expects of those who would seek to follow him. Which leads to what Bonhoeffer calls ‘the first step’. It is going out of a situation where one ‘cannot believe’ into a situation where ‘faith is possible’[33]. This step is absolutely necessary to follow Jesus, ‘without taking this step, they are deluding themselves like fanatics’[34]. Though this step brings no justification whatsoever it is required for anyone who desires faith. Which takes Bonhoeffer to his two key propositions, ‘only he who believes is obedient, and only he who is obedient believes’[35]. While ‘obedience must be separated from faith’ for a correct understanding of justification, ‘we must never lose sight of their essential unity’[36]. Obedience is both the ‘consequence’ and the ‘presupposition’ of faith.[37]

External Step

The first step must involve an external act. Which Bonhoeffer shows is supported by the Lutheran confessions. Yet this external act can never be more than ‘a dead work of the law, which can never of itself bring a man to Christ’[38]. For this step can only be done ‘if we fix our eyes not on the work we do, but on the word with which Jesus calls us to do it’[39]. It is also a step we should take even if we do not believe ‘for you are bidden to take it’[40].

Pastoral Perspectives

Then Bonhoeffer considers the significance of his two propositions that requires the first external step from a pastoral perspective. When someone comes to you struggling with unbelief, the pastor’s role is to exhort them to obedience for – ‘Only those who obey can believe’[41]. To demonstrate this, he turns to two final texts (Mark 19:16-22; Luke 10:25-29). Making the point that ‘with our consciences distracted by sin, we are confronted by the call of Jesus to spontaneous obedience’[42]. This external first step that aligns with his propositional sentence is the key to understanding what discipleship truly is according to Bonhoeffer.

Now that the content of the text has been briefly outlined this essay will now turn to its life setting and relevance for today.

Life Setting

The Church

The time in which these two chapters were penned contained an avalanche of activity within Germany. The protestant church in particular was in a struggle between the pro-Nazi Protestant Reich Church and the Confessing Church of which Bonhoeffer was a key leader.[43] While the Confessing Church did not resist in a ‘political sense’, they did desire to keep church doctrine independent and often found ‘themselves increasingly in a state of principled opposition to both the state and the German Christians’[44]. Most Confessing Church members were concerned about religious civil liberty yet there were some who called for greater resistance.[45] In Discipleship Bonhoeffer was sure to condemn the sectarian view which he related to ‘Pietism and the free churches’[46]. He specifically says, ‘The disciples of Jesus must not fondly imagine that they can simply run away from the world and huddle together in a little band’[47]. The Hegelian notion of Universal Reason still held sway within ‘Protestant theological thinking in Germany’[48]. When Bonhoeffer describes cheap grace in the context of the church at the time many of his ‘contemporaries could be accurately described by this category, especially as they tacitly allowed Hitler to lead them’[49]. The Gestapo was a real threat to anyone who they deemed dangerous to the movement. By the end of 1937, when The Cost of Discipleship was written, twenty-seven of the students at Finkenwalde had been arrested and imprisoned.[50] Those within the Christian community of the time were either ignorant, indifferent, cowards or in danger. Yet to judge any member of the Church would be arrogant as Cochrane marvels ‘that the church did not wholly succumb to the temptation and give its unconditional allegiance to Hitler’[51]. After all, famous Lutheran theologians such as Paul Althaus considered the present age as a ‘miracle of god’[52]. There was also the reality that ‘in 1934, Hitler appeared to some as a paragon of virtue and a political messiah’ who accomplished much for Germany[53]. Though the church may have had the wool taken over their eyes, Bonhoeffer was not deceived. He ‘was at the heart of the resistance’ right from the beginning even though he ‘stood almost alone’ at times.[54] Yet despite this context Discipleship is ‘not to be read essentially as political resistance literature’[55]. Rather it is to point to what true discipleship looks like for any Christian either under threat from the powers that be or living peaceably within one’s country.

The World

The world was going through a significant upheaval at the time. With totalitarian ideologies that ‘laid conquest whole peoples’[56] and a ‘post-religious phase’[57]. The secularization of society ‘had begun long before with Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Machiavelli, and others at the beginning of the “modern age”’[58]. The Nazi regime was perpetrating many injustices and persecutions of which Bonhoeffer ‘knew far more than the average German citizen’[59]. Even in this age of nationalism Bonhoeffer knew that ultimately, he ‘stands under God and that it is a sin against him and his call for fellowship with other nations if it degenerates into national egotism and greed’[60]. Amid this, Bonhoeffer pens the first two chapters of The Cost of Discipleship which is really ‘a call to battle, it is concentration and hence restriction, so that the entire earth may be reconquered by the infinite message’[61]. It is not a detour on Dietrich’s path to Letters and Papers from Prison. It is not an escape from the world. It is the endeavour to live in this world as a true disciple of Christ.

Literature and Influences

With regards to the rest of Bonhoeffer’s literature The Cost of Discipleship seeks to do what every other one of his major writings desires, to answer the question ‘Who is Christ for us today?’[62]. Who Christ is and what he did is the core of the answer that Nachfolge[63] presents. Although the book was published in 1937, Bonhoeffer’s thoughts could be traced back as early as his meeting with his friend Lasserre who ‘spoke often about the Sermon on the Mount’[64]. Even before Bonhoeffer began as a Systematics lecturer he heard the term ‘cheap grace’, originally coined by Clayton Powell[65]. Then, especially because of but not solely due to the events of 1933[66], he began lecturing to his students at Finkenwalde on this very topic that formed the foundation of his book.[67] Although he later wrote that he could ‘see the dangers of this book’ he makes it clear that he is ‘prepared to stand by what’ he wrote.[68] Godsey makes the point that through Bonhoeffer’s ‘three stages’ of development there can be seen a correct balance of theology.[69] Nachfolge must be read in conjunction with Gemeinsames Leben (Life Together) to understand Bonhoeffer’s point of view.[70] While his later writings can be seen in a ‘Christian secularity’ it was Dietrich’s profound ‘spirituality’ reflected in his earlier writings ‘without which he could never have persevered in his struggle against Nazism’[71]. The content of Discipleship can also be traced from his earliest writings such as Sanctorum Communio and Act and Being.[72] It is possible to see a changing balanced uniformity within all his writings.

Many influences on Bohoeffer’s life and thereby Discipleship were Albert Schweitzer[73] (1875-1965), Adolf Schlatter[74] (1852-1938), Adolf von Harnack[75] (1851-1930) and Karl Barth[76] (1886-1968). Each of these influential men impacted Bonhoeffer’s theology. Particularly a ‘dialectical theology’ where ‘the message of the Holy God revealed in Jesus Christ’ is the centre of all Christian proclamation.[77] Rumscheidt believes this was in contrast to ‘contemporary historical-relativistic, conservative-orthodox and pietistic-romantic understandings of the Bible’ at the time.[78] Some would condemn Discipleship as questioning the validity of Sola Fide and Sola Gratia. Yet the first two chapters seem to uphold justification and ‘to go beyond mere words, and rediscover and restore its preciousness’[79]. A Christological centre is key to understanding Bonhoeffer and his view of discipleship in Nachfolge. While contemporary theologians are influential, his continual references to the Bible in the first two chapters of Discipleship point to a man who desires to answer to the Bible alone with Christ at the centre.

Relevance

The initial reaction to Discipleship was described as ‘a thunderbolt of insight’ on Bonhoeffer’s students.[80] At first the ordinands of Finkenwalde protested ‘the reversal of the hallowed order which put faith before obedience’ yet ‘the longer the National Socialist regime remained in power, the more the ordinands…become familiar with the Bonhoeffer of Discipleship[81]. The publication of the concepts in Nachfolge provided Bonhoeffer with ‘a wide reputation’[82] and ‘readership’[83]. Multiple claims have been made on Bonhoeffer throughout history between ‘Protestant and Catholic, Liberal and Conservative, clergyman and layman, theologian and activist, Calvinist and Lutheran, across the ecumenical spectrum’ and he has been a symbol to all.[84] He is ‘one of the most widely known theologians of the twentieth century both within and beyond the boundaries of the church’[85]. There has been a ‘kaleidoscope of Bonhoeffer interpretation’[86]. But it was particularly Nachfolge that gave him a ‘reputation as one of Germany’s leading theologians’[87]. From Bonhoeffer’s life lived as a disciple of Christ he has influenced people throughout history and the world, like ‘theologians in South America’, ‘the South African anti-apartheid movement’ and ‘the Minjung theologians in South Korea’.[88] His clarity and conviction of costly grace drove many to follow Bonhoeffer’s view of what it truly means to follow Christ.

Today the question of what it really means to follow Christ stands as resolute as the day Discipleship confronted it. We cannot rationalise Bonhoeffer’s claims on discipleship away with a culture that was more tolerable. Rather ‘within a technological culture saturated with militarism, hate, and divided peoples is a man familiar with it all and who has something to say about it’[89]. Discipleship calls the follower of Christ to stand upon the Bible and ‘not bend in order to conform to the latest political poll or popular trend’.[90] When today’s culture realises that Christianity requires a costly grace to stand for God, Bonhoeffer’s Discipleship will hold firm in imploring ‘us to seek Christ and his Word instead of the ways of man’[91]. Nachfolge applies today as it will tomorrow. Costly grace must be remembered when cheap grace is in vogue or when not even cheap grace is recognised.

Conclusion

The first two chapters of The Cost of Discipleship presents a concept that must be upheld. Yet it is not only in the penned words of the author but in the life lived that will continue to apply to peoples of all nations. It pushes discipleship outside the comfort zone of nominal Christianity into a life firmly grounded in a commitment to Christ.

 

    1. W. Madison Grace II, ‘True Discipleship: Radical Voices From the Swiss Brethren to Dietrich Bonhoeffer to Today’, Southwestern Journal of Theology 53/2 (2011): 135.

    2. G. K. A. Bell, ‘Foreword’, in The Cost of Discipleship (London: SCM Press, 1959), 7.

    3. 0

      Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Theologian, Christian, Man for His Times; A Biography (ed. Victoria Barnett; Rev. ed.; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000), xvii–xviii.

    4. Renate Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Brief Life (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2004), 4.

    5. G. Leibholz, ‘Memoir’, in The Cost of Discipleship (London: SCM Press, 1959), 9.

    6. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 9.

    7. Renate Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 6.

    8. Renate Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 5.

    9. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 10. It is interesting considering the heritage of his grand-fathers on both sides who both suffered persecution because of their beliefs.

    10. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 10.

    11. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 10.

    12. Renate Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 19.

    13. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 11.

    14. Grace II, “True Discipleship,” 146.

    15. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 11.

    16. Haddon Willmer, ‘Costly Discipleship’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://cco.cambridge.org/login2?dest=/book?id=ccol052158258x_CCOL052158258X, (accessed July 31, 2017), 173.

    17. Another name often given to The Cost of Discipleship.

    18. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 12–13.

    19. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 17.

    20. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship (London: SCM Press, 1959), 35–36.

    21. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 37.

    22. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 37.

    23. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 38.

    24. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 38.

    25. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 39.

    26. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 39.

    27. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 43–44.

    28. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 45.

    29. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 46.

    30. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 46.

    31. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 49.

    32. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 50.

    33. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 53.

    34. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 53.

    35. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 54.

    36. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 54.

    37. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 54–55.

    38. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 56.

    39. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 56.

    40. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 58.

    41. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 60.

    42. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 68.

    43. Robert P. Ericksen, Complicity in the Holocaust: Churches and Universities in Nazi Germany (Cambridge: New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 28.

    44. Wolfgang Benz, A Concise History of the Third Reich (ed. Thomas Dunlap; Weimar and Now 39; Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 45.

    45. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1st ed.; New York: Knopf Distributed by Random House, 1996), 438.

    46. Franklin H. Littell, ‘The Question: Who Is Christ for Us Today?’, in The Place of Bonhoeffer (ed. Martin E. Marty; London: SCM., 1963), 36–37.

    47. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship (London: SCM Press, 2015), 134.

    48. Martin Rumscheidt, ‘The Formation of Bonhoeffer’s Theology’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 62.

    49. Grace II, “True Discipleship,” 147.

    50. F. Burton Nelson, ‘The Life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 37. Arrest was a real danger as in 1935 700 pastors of the Confessing Church were briefly arrested. The United States Holocause Memorial Museum, ‘The German Churches and the Nazi State’, in Holocaust Encyclopedia, n.d., https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005206, (accessed September 12, 2017), 15.

    51. Arthur Cochrane, ‘Barmen Revisited’, Christianity and Crisis 33/22 (December 1973): 269.

    52. Cochrane, “Barmen Revisited,” 269.

    53. Joseph S. Harvard, ‘The Continuing Cost of Discipleship’, Journal for Preachers 7/4 (1984): 3.

    54. Harvard, “The Continuing Cost of Discipleship,” 3.

    55. Willmer, “Costly Discipleship,” 173.

    56. Littell, “The Question,” 27.

    57. Littell, “The Question,” 39.

    58. Littell, “The Question,” 39.

    59. Nelson, “The Life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” 37. This is due to his brother-in-law’s, Hans von Dohnanyi, connection as a member of the Ministry of Justice staff and Dohnanyi’s book ‘Chronicle of Shame’.

    60. Leibholz, “Memoir,” 22.

    61. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 459.

    62. Littell, “The Question,” 25.

    63. The original name for The Cost of Discipleship. Literally meaning, “following” or “the act of following”.

    64. Eric Metaxas, Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2010), 113.

    65. Ralph Garlin Clingan, Against Cheap Grace in a World Come of Age: An Intellectual Biography of Clayton Powell, 1865-1953 (New York: P. Lang, 2002).

    66. A rally in November this year brought out significant features of a pro-Nazi agenda that awakened much of the church to the dangers of interference into core doctrinal issues. Victoria Barnett, For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest Against Hitler (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 34–35.

    67. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 458–459.

    68. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Prisoner for God: Letters and Papers from Prison (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 168.

    69. John D Godsey, The Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (London: SCM Press, 2013), 268.

    70. Wayne Whitson Floyd Jr., ‘Bonhoeffer’s Literary Legacy’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 82; Clifford Green, ‘Human Sociality and Christian Community’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 126.

    71. Geffrey B. Kelly, ‘Prayer and Action for Justice: Bonhoeffer’s Spirituality’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 246.

    72. Grace II, “True Discipleship,” 148.

    73. When Schweitzer’s book The Quest of the Historical Jesus and Bonhoeffer’s Discipleship are compared there is the commonality of discipleship involving an act of obedience ‘but for Bonhoeffer, the Lord was not the Unknown without a Name’ and ‘discipleship was not a humanist adventure but a theologically grounded obedience’. Willmer, “Costly Discipleship,” 178.

    74. Schlatter was Bonhoeffer’s Professor of New Testament Studies who firmly believed that ‘in all decisions in matters of faith and church he was accountable to the Bible alone’. Rumscheidt, “The Formation of Bonhoeffer’s Theology,” 52. It was this man who ‘implanted’ this concept in Dietrich at a young age which allowed Bonhoeffer to ‘understand Barth more readily’ and ‘shaped Bonhoeffer’s critique of Bultmann’s programme of ‘demythologisation’ in his prison letters’. Rumscheidt, “The Formation of Bonhoeffer’s Theology,” 52.

    75. Harnack held a special place in Bonhoeffer’s life. Bonhoeffer wrote to him on his graduation “What I have learned and understood in your seminary is too closely bound to my entire person for me ever to forget it”. Dietrich wrote a eulogy for Harnack at his death where he praised ‘the friend of all young people’. Even though Bonhoeffer seems to agree with Barth’s critique of Harnack he never debated Harnack in public, unlike Barth. Bonhoeffer acknowledges at the end of his life a certain ‘debt he owed to liberal theology’. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Bonhoeffer Reader (eds. Clifford J. Green and Michael P. DeJonge; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2013), 15–16.

    76. These two theologians were on friendly terms and shared ‘a decidedly Christocentric point of view’. Godsey, The Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 276. In fact, ‘it was indisputable that there was no contemporary to whom Bonhoeffer opened his heart so completely as he did to Karl Barth’. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 186. Yet, at the same time there were points of difference in their theologies. Godsey, The Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 276.

    77. Rumscheidt, “The Formation of Bonhoeffer’s Theology,” 62.

    78. Rumscheidt, “The Formation of Bonhoeffer’s Theology,” 62.

    79. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 454.

    80. Ferdinand Schlingensiepen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945: Martyr, Thinker, Man of Resistance (London: T & T Clark, 2010), 206–207.

    81. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 460.

    82. Dallas M Roark, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. Bob E Patterson; Makers of the Modern Theological Mind 2; Texas: Word Books, 1972), 75.

    83. Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 453.

    84. Martin E. Marty, ‘Introduction: Problems and Possibilities in Bonhoeffer’s Thought’, in The Place of Bonhoeffer (ed. Martin E. Marty; London: SCM, 1963), 14.

    85. John W. De Gruchy, ‘The Reception of Bonhoeffer’s Theology’, in The Cambridge Companion to Dietrich Bonhoeffer (ed. John W. De Gruchy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 93.

    86. De Gruchy, “The Reception of Bonhoeffer’s Theology,” 95.

    87. Godsey, The Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 151.

    88. Heino Falcke, ‘‘My’ Bonhoeffer: Discipleship, Peace, Freedom’, The Ecumenical Review 63/1 (March 2011): 111.

    89. Roark, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 124.

    90. Harvard, “The Continuing Cost of Discipleship,” 5–6.

    91. Grace II, “True Discipleship,” 153.

     

     

     

     

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